A better Python script for uploading images


Install the [poster] module by running the command-line:

sudo pip install poster

UploadImage.py (RPI)

#!/usr/bin/env python

import urllib, urllib2, os, os.path, sys
from poster.encode import multipart_encode
from poster.streaminghttp import register_openers
from time import sleep


query = { 'id' : 1 }
url = "http://domain.com/path/save_image.php?"+urllib.urlencode(query)

filename = '/dev/shm/mjpeg/cam.jpg'
#print 'Saved: '+filename;

while True:
    if (os.path.isfile(filename)) :
      values = {'image':open(filename)}
      data, headers = multipart_encode(values)
      headers['User-Agent'] = 'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.5; Windows NT)'
      headers['filename'] = filename
      req = urllib2.Request(url, data, headers)
      req.unverifiable = True
      content = urllib2.urlopen(req).read()
    print 'Upload failed.';

Edit the crontab.

sudo crontab -e

Add the following to the end of the crontab.

0 * * * * /sbin/reboot
@reboot python /home/pi/Documents/GetMacAdx.py &
@reboot python /home/pi/Documents/UploadImage.py &

Reboot the Raspberry PI and the security camera is ready to go!

save_image.php (Server)


if (!isset($_GET['id'])) {
  echo ('Invalid request!');
$id = intval($_GET['id']);

$image = $_FILES["image"];

if ($image == null) {
   echo ("Missing image!");
} else {
   echo "Saved image!";
   $filename = "image" . $id . ".jpg";
   $tmp_name = $_FILES["image"]["tmp_name"];
   move_uploaded_file($tmp_name, $filename);

[Setup wifi on the command-line]

Turn off the camera LED by adding the following to the end of the file.



Control your LEDs with your TV remote?! || Arduino IR Tutorial

I created a [XamarinFormsIoT] Windows Core IoT project which can control LEDs and play sounds on a Raspberry PI 3 using C#/XAML. I used a portable dependency interface to expose the GPIO controller which only exists in the UWP project. GPIO is used to control the LEDs. I also ordered an IR receiver so I can detect IR signals from a remote and it works!

Next I need to [find] a UWP library for LIRC.

The [Arduino-IRremote] has a C++ library that can be converted to UWP.

I followed the idea from the video below.

[How to Control the GPIO on a Raspberry Pi with an IR Remote]

Adafruit: [IR (Infrared) Receiver Sensor]

[Raspberry Pis, Remotes & IR Receivers!]

[Xamarin Components]

[Play wav file in Raspberry PI with Windows IoT Core]


[Xamarin Forms: Hello Blinky]

[Windows 10 IoT Core : Setting Startup App]

[UWP on Xbox One]

Raspberry PI 2 with Leap

The Leap Motion Controller requires ARM-9 or better and to make work with the Raspberry PI 2 I used a proxy HTTP server to work with the Raspberry PI 2. The Raspberry PI 2 controls servos based on the data from the leap. Each finger on the leap controls a different servo.

The project in action:

Details about the code:

The proxy sends JSON data for the finger rotations (in degrees).

  "thumb": 27.815885630721692,
  "index": 8.8111549114070726,
  "middle": 16.216426372741033,
  "ring": 29.267951404867844,
  "pinky": 86.043786182477533

The script: `LeapServos.py`

#!/usr/bin/env python

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import datetime
import time
import urllib2
import threading
import json

servo_pin2 = 18
servo_pin3 = 22

# 60 degrees / 0.1seconds 
servo_speed = 0.1


GPIO.setup(servo_pin2, GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.setup(servo_pin3, GPIO.OUT)

last_time = datetime.datetime.now() 
current_time = datetime.datetime.now() 

accuracy = 0.01
rotation1 = 90
rotation2 = 90
rotation3 = 90
rotation4 = 90
rotation5 = 90
timeRotation1 = 0
timeRotation2 = 0
timeRotation3 = 0
timeRotation4 = 0
timeRotation5 = 0
targetRotation1 = 90
targetRotation2 = 90
targetRotation3 = 90
targetRotation4 = 90
targetRotation5 = 90

pulse2 = GPIO.PWM(servo_pin2, 50)
pulse3 = GPIO.PWM(servo_pin3, 50)

logTime = datetime.datetime.now()

stayAlive = True

def getRotation(rotation):
  if (rotation > 90.0):
   return 180
  if (rotation > 45.0):
   return 90
   return 0

def newTarget():
 global targetRotation1
 global targetRotation2
 global targetRotation3
 global targetRotation4
 global targetRotation5
 while (stayAlive):
  content = urllib2.urlopen("").read()
  #print (content)
  jsonObject = json.loads(content) 
  #print (jsonObject)
  #for key in jsonObject:
  # print (key)
  #print ("index: " + str(jsonObject["index"]))
  targetRotation1 = getRotation(jsonObject["thumb"])
  targetRotation2 = getRotation(jsonObject["index"])
  targetRotation3 = getRotation(jsonObject["middle"])
  targetRotation4 = getRotation(jsonObject["ring"])
  targetRotation5 = getRotation(jsonObject["pinky"])
 print ("Thread complete.")

webThread = threading.Thread(target=newTarget, args=(), kwargs={})

def log():
 global logTime
 global timeRotation2
 global timeRotation3
 global targetRotation2
 global targetRotation3
 if (logTime < datetime.datetime.now()):
  logTime = datetime.datetime.now() + datetime.timedelta(0, 0.5)
  #print "****"
  #print ("2: TargetRotation: " + str(targetRotation2) + " Time: "+str(timeRotation2))
  #print ("3: TargetRotation: " + str(targetRotation3) + " Time: "+str(timeRotation3))

def reset(pulse):

def compare(timeRotation, rotation, targetRotation):
 global deltaTime
 if (timeRotation >= 100):
  return 0.25
 elif (rotation == targetRotation):
  if (timeRotation >= 0.0):
   return timeRotation - deltaTime.total_seconds()
   return timeRotation;
  print "targetRotation changed."
  return 100

def update(pulse, timeRotation, targetRotation):
 cycle = 0
 if (timeRotation >= 100):
  cycle = 0
  if (targetRotation == 90):
   cycle = 7.5
  elif (targetRotation == 0):
   cycle = 2.5
   cycle = 12.5
  print ("Cycle: "+str(cycle))
 elif (timeRotation >= 0.0 and ((timeRotation - deltaTime.total_seconds()) <= 0.0)):
  print ("Cycle: "+str(cycle))
 return targetRotation

 print "setup complete"

 while True:
  last_time = current_time 
  current_time = datetime.datetime.now() 
  deltaTime = current_time - last_time;

  timeRotation2 = compare(timeRotation2, rotation2, targetRotation2)
  timeRotation3 = compare(timeRotation3, rotation3, targetRotation3)
  rotation2 = update(pulse2, timeRotation2, targetRotation2);
  rotation3 = update(pulse3, timeRotation3, targetRotation3);

except KeyboardInterrupt:

 print '\r\nProgram shutdown.'
 stayAlive = False
 print '\r\nProgam complete.'


Python Camera Adjust Iso For Sunset And Sunrise

Install the `astral` Python package.

sudo pip install astral

Be sure to [set the timezone].

Python script to adjust the iso based on sunrise and sunset.

#get access to the camera
from picamera import PiCamera

#import so we can invoke another script
import subprocess

#get access to the clock
import datetime

#sleep so we can wait on the camera
from time import sleep

# get access to sunrise and sunset
from astral import Location

from fractions import Fraction

# create a camera object
camera = PiCamera()

#set the image resolution
camera.resolution = (1024, 768)

#rotate the camera if upside-down
#camera.rotation = 180

#flip the camera on the horizontal
#camera.hflip = True

i = 0;

#record defaults
framerate = camera.framerate
shutter_speed = camera.shutter_speed
exposure_mode = camera.exposure_mode
iso = camera.iso

while True:

  # Get sunrise and sunset for Monroe, WA
  l = Location()
  l.latitude = 47.887059
  l.longitude = -121.8792998
  l.timezone = 'US/Pacific'

  sunrise = l.sun()['dawn']
  sunriseHour = int(sunrise.strftime('%H'))
  sunriseMinute = int(sunrise.strftime('%M'))
  sunset = l.sun()['sunset']
  sunsetHour = int(sunset.strftime('%H'))
  sunsetMinute = int(sunset.strftime('%M'))

  hours = int(datetime.datetime.now().strftime('%H'))
  minutes = int(datetime.datetime.now().strftime('%M'))
  seconds = int(datetime.datetime.now().strftime('%S'))
  #print 'hours='+hours+' minutes='+minutes+' seconds='+seconds
  if (hours > sunriseHour and hours < sunsetHour):
    #print 'work in the light'
    camera.framerate = framerate
    camera.shutter_speed = shutter_speed
    camera.exposure_mode = exposure_mode
    camera.iso = iso
    #print 'work in the dark'
    camera.framerate = Fraction(1,6)
    camera.shutter_speed = 600000
    camera.exposure_mode = 'off'
    camera.iso = 800

  filename = 'image'+str(i)+'.jpg'

  #save image locally

  #invoke the script to upload the image
  subprocess.call('python save_image.py '+filename, shell=True)


  i = (i + 1) % 12

Plantronics Voyager Legend with sdptool

sdptool records 48:C1:AC:E2:21:A7

Service RecHandle: 0x10000
Service Class ID List:
“PnP Information” (0x1200)

Service Name: Hands-Free unit
Service RecHandle: 0x10001
Service Class ID List:
“Handsfree” (0x111e)
“Generic Audio” (0x1203)
Protocol Descriptor List:
“L2CAP” (0x0100)
“RFCOMM” (0x0003)
Channel: 1
Language Base Attr List:
code_ISO639: 0x656e
encoding: 0x6a
base_offset: 0x100
Profile Descriptor List:
“Handsfree” (0x111e)
Version: 0x0106

Service Name: Headset
Service RecHandle: 0x10002
Service Class ID List:
“Headset” (0x1108)
“” (0x1131)
“Generic Audio” (0x1203)
Protocol Descriptor List:
“L2CAP” (0x0100)
“RFCOMM” (0x0003)
Channel: 2
Language Base Attr List:
code_ISO639: 0x656e
encoding: 0x6a
base_offset: 0x100
Profile Descriptor List:
“Headset” (0x1108)
Version: 0x0102

Service RecHandle: 0x10003
Service Class ID List:
“Audio Sink” (0x110b)
Protocol Descriptor List:
“L2CAP” (0x0100)
PSM: 25
“AVDTP” (0x0019)
uint16: 0x0102
Profile Descriptor List:
“Advanced Audio” (0x110d)
Version: 0x0102

Service RecHandle: 0x10004
Service Class ID List:
“AV Remote” (0x110e)
“AV Remote Controller” (0x110f)
Protocol Descriptor List:
“L2CAP” (0x0100)
PSM: 23
“AVCTP” (0x0017)
uint16: 0x0103
Profile Descriptor List:
“AV Remote” (0x110e)
Version: 0x0104

Service RecHandle: 0x10005
Service Class ID List:
“AV Remote Target” (0x110c)
Protocol Descriptor List:
“L2CAP” (0x0100)
PSM: 23
“AVCTP” (0x0017)
uint16: 0x0103
Profile Descriptor List:
“AV Remote” (0x110e)
Version: 0x0104

Service Name: PBAP Client
Service RecHandle: 0x10006
Service Class ID List:
“Phonebook Access – PCE” (0x112e)
Profile Descriptor List:
“Phonebook Access” (0x1130)
Version: 0x0101

Service Name: PltHeadsetDataService
Service RecHandle: 0x10007
Service Class ID List:
UUID 128: 82972387-294e-4d62-97b5-2668aa35f618
Protocol Descriptor List:
“L2CAP” (0x0100)
“RFCOMM” (0x0003)
Channel: 5
Language Base Attr List:
code_ISO639: 0x656e
encoding: 0x6a
base_offset: 0x100

Plantronic Voyager Legend Bluetooth and BlueZ

According to the specifications, Platronics Voyager Legend uses [Phone Book Access Profile (PBAP)]. BlueZ lists [PBAP] as a supported protocol.

python test/test-device list

48:C1:AC:E2:21:A7 PLT_Legend

python test/test-device connect 48:C1:AC:E2:21:A7 PBAP

dbus.Dictionary({dbus.String(u’Name’): dbus.String(u’PLT_Legend’, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Paired’): dbus.Boolean(True, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Modalias’): dbus.String(u’bluetooth:v0055p0113d005D’, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Adapter’): dbus.ObjectPath(‘/org/bluez/hci0′, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’LegacyPairing’): dbus.Boolean(False, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Alias’): dbus.String(u’PLT_Legend’, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Connected’): dbus.Boolean(False, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’UUIDs’): dbus.Array([dbus.String(u’00001108-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb’), dbus.String(u’0000110b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb’), dbus.String(u’0000110c-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb’), dbus.String(u’0000110e-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb’), dbus.String(u’0000111e-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb’), dbus.String(u’00001200-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb’), dbus.String(u’82972387-294e-4d62-97b5-2668aa35f618′)], signature=dbus.Signature(‘s’), variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Address’): dbus.String(u’48:C1:AC:E2:21:A7′, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Blocked’): dbus.Boolean(False, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Class’): dbus.UInt32(2360324L, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Trusted’): dbus.Boolean(True, variant_level=1), dbus.String(u’Icon’): dbus.String(u’audio-card’, variant_level=1)}, signature=dbus.Signature(‘sv’))
Traceback (most recent call last):
File “./test-device”, line 117, in
File “/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/dbus/proxies.py”, line 70, in __call__
return self._proxy_method(*args, **keywords)
File “/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/dbus/proxies.py”, line 145, in __call__
File “/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/dbus/connection.py”, line 651, in call_blocking
message, timeout)
dbus.exceptions.DBusException: org.bluez.Error.NotAvailable: Operation currently not available

python test/pbap-client 48:C1:AC:E2:21:A7

Creating Session
Traceback (most recent call last):
File “pbap-client”, line 128, in
session_path = client.CreateSession(sys.argv[1], { “Target”: “PBAP” })
File “/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/dbus/proxies.py”, line 70, in __call__
return self._proxy_method(*args, **keywords)
File “/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/dbus/proxies.py”, line 145, in __call__
File “/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/dbus/connection.py”, line 651, in call_blocking
message, timeout)
dbus.exceptions.DBusException: org.freedesktop.DBus.Error.UnknownObject: Method “CreateSession” with signature “sa{ss}” on interface “org.bluez.obex.Client1” doesn’t exist

[Phone Book Access (PBAP) client for Linux (Raspberry Pi)]